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Brick, one of the most ancient building materials, is older only with stone and wood. The brick is already mentioned in the Torah and the Bible. The Bible says about the brick: "And they said to one another," We will make bricks and burn them with fire. " And they have bricks instead of stones "(Old Testament, Genesis, Chapter 11: 3), so the use of burned brick in Messopotamia goes back to ancient times. The use of bricks gradually supplanted the use of natural stone. Archaeological excavations show that the brick was used as a building material already about 5 thousand years ago. Archaeologists in the Middle East have found bricks, whose age can be more than 10,000 years! Scientists hypothesized that these bricks could be made from clay mass, which was formed after flooding by the river of nearby territories. Clay and mud formed into bricks by hand and then dried in the sun. The structure of the bricks showed that the resin was also used for their manufacture. At first, the builders used unbaked bricks, because under the hot sun the clay dried up and became hard, almost like a stone. In Egypt, people have learned to burn brick already for 3 millennium BC, which is confirmed by the manuscripts. Because of low water resistance, raw brick was replaced by a more durable ceramic, which is obtained by roasting raw. On the images that have survived since the time of the pharaohs, one can see how they got bricks and how buildings were built from them. For the sake of justice, it must be said that the difference between the construction projects of the time and the current one is not very great. Only the correctness of the laying of the walls of the ancient Egyptians checked the triangle and the bricks were worn on the rocker arms, and the principle of erecting the buildings has remained virtually unchanged since then. The brick, as mentioned, was also used in the architecture of Mesopotamia, the territory between the Tigris and the Euphrates, where even now the sticky clay is abundant. Clay, water, straw and sun served as the basis for the first bricks. Cut straw was added for strength and strength. "Father of History" Herodotus wrote that Babylon, in the time of King Nebuchadnezzar (6th century BC), was the largest and most beautiful city, decorated with buildings made of ceramic bricks. Describing a sepulcher temple (the restored Tower of Babel), he notes that his cladding was made of blue glazed brick. Excavations of Babylon indicate that part of the city on the eastern bank of the Euphrates River, which had an area of ​​4 million m2, was surrounded by a protective brick wall. In the city-state of Ur in the Mesopotamia, which at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Was the main city of South Mesopotamia, the width of the wall made of unfired bricks was 27 m! The next step was the appearance of the plinth (which in Greek is the word "plinthos" means "brick"). Unlike modern, the ancient brick was square and flat (sides 30-60 cm, thickness 3-9 cm). Another Greek word for "keramos" is translated as "clay". A concept of "ceramics" means products made of burnt clay. In addition to pottery, the most important pottery craft in Ancient Greece was a well-known brick. In the construction of the Roman Empire, ceramic brick was also widely used for the construction of complex architectural designs of arches and arches. On the territory of Ancient Italy, the Etruscans dominated, which not only erected their temples from adobe bricks, but also adorned them with terracotta details. The brick in the buildings of that time already acquires an oblong form more familiar to us. In Byzantium, burnt brick for many centuries was the main building material. Masonry was carried out on a lime mortar, in which crushed brick crumb was added. Sometimes the rows alternated with stone ones. Medieval architects widely used not only the structural capabilities of bricks, but also decorative ones. Along with the patterned masonry, its combination with terracotta and majolica parts was used. Together with the military campaigns of the Romans, the brick fell into the countries of Europe. Since the XII century, the largest centers of brick construction are Lombardy (northern Italy), France and Germany. In Germany, the brick gave the name to the whole style in architecture - brick gothic dominated here during the XII - XVI centuries. Brick has found its application in all times of architectural styles: from Romanticism to Gothic and Renaissance. In Germany in 1854, the manufacturer of the Schlickeisen factory in Berlin invented the extrusion press. In 1888, architect Friedrich Hoffmann patented a circular kiln that would burn modern ceramic bricks.

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